The functioning of a modern state is impossible without a political activity in which one of the leading political parties occupy. In this article we look at the history, development and current alignment of the main political forces in the face of Japan's political parties.
The crucial time portion in the transition to the creation of parties became the Meiji era, when the reforms were allowed to form political associations. January 12, 1874 the Company was formed Patriots (Aikoku to: that :), which in fact was the first political party in Japan. Aikoku to: then: was the initiator of the Japanese parliament, wrote the Declaration, which stated the need for the introduction of such a political institution as an elected legislature. A dozen years later, the founders of the Society of Patriots based on it created a Constitutional Liberal Party (Rikken-dziyu: that :), which was formed after the first general elections held on 1 July 1890. Thus, in Japan for the first time among all Asian countries has been selected legislative power, personified by the Parliament.
The progressive movement in the development of political parties and increasing their political influence was interrupted by the arrival to power of warlords. Ultra-nationalists and militarists have created conditions in the political life of the country, there are parties that became impossible. Therefore, political parties were temporarily disbanded during the hegemony of the military, that is, before the war and during the Second World War.
After the war the new constitution was adopted in Japan, which enshrined the right of citizens to form associations. Japan has chosen the democratic path of development, which was the basis for the formation of a multi-party system. However, until the mid-nineties uniquely Japanese call multiparty political system (in the traditional Western sense) is not possible, as the special position of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan in the state and the society was the basis for the art to the Japanese political system a-half, meaning the greatest impact in LDPJ Parliament, Government and the local government.
However, conditions are being created at the end of the Second World War were the prerequisites for the creation of many political parties of every persuasion. Until the mid-fifties and the Liberal Democratic Party were the main representatives of the bourgeois forces, who stood in opposition to the Socialist and Communist parties. A little later came the centrist Party of pure politics - By: Mate: formed in 1964.
A-half of Japan's political system, also known as the "system of 1955", was formed as a result of the political arena of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which was created by the union of the Liberal and Democratic parties. Opposition LDP became Japan Socialist Party (JSP), whose position at that time greatly strengthened. But later, several factors have reduced the impact of PCOS on the political life of the country. As the main reason for this may be noted the differences between the members of the party that led to the formation of smaller political parties such as the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), the Social Democratic Union (SDS), as well as the increasing influence of the Japanese Communist Party (JCP).
By the mid-nineties in Japan has matured crisis of political parties. It was the fact that the LDP since 1955 without interruption in power, regularly winning the most seats in the parliamentary elections. Such a long-term stay at the levers of legislative power has led to the increasing incidence of corruption in the ranks of the Liberal Democrats. By its nature, the party has become more conservative, and obviously did not dare to update their beliefs and bring them in line with the current political, economic and social situation within Japan itself and the world at large. Public dissatisfaction with the ruling party grew.
Opposition parties are also not left out of the public criticism, because they could not make a serious competition LDP and significantly influence the change in policy. The reason for this is very simple - individually, each opposition party, including even the largest PCOS (not to mention the PDS, SDS, Ko: Mate: or JCP), did not have sufficient capacity to win elections and to form a government. The political views of each party are too different and prevented opposition to unite in the face of its main rival - the LDP's.
Such a public position in relation to the parties was the prerequisite to the idea that the long overdue need for a classic two-party system, when in the arena of political struggle would act two leading parties competing for power and, consequently, for the political course of the country and on the the international stage. The differences in the ranks of the Liberal Democrats were the fact that the LDP lost the majority of seats in parliament and, as a consequence, the right to form a cabinet. Was formed vosmipartiynaya ruling coalition.
In addition, as a result of the split came from the LDP began to form new parties and factions, which are planned ex-Liberal Democrat and have been be a force that can oppose the LDP. At the same time, some politicians from the centrist parties PDS, SDS and Co.: Mate: attracted by the idea of creating serious competition LDP, the opportunity to join the former Liberal Democrats. Both sides wanted to prevent the left wing in the face of PCOS and the JCP in the union. Also, the reason for this kind of sentiment in the ranks of the politicians was that the first coalition government has adopted a number of laws regulating the electoral system, and the order of party funding. The law establishes the funding in proportion to occupy a place in Parliament, that is, the more the party mandates, the more money goes for its financing. Therefore, the smaller parties virtually no choice but to start processes and mergers.
In late 1994, the party was set up new frontiers (NDP). It formed the policies coming out of the LDP. At once there was suspicion in regard to education, the two-party system: many saw this as a threat to a multiparty system, and PCOS in this situation could never get into the ruling elite. There is an idea of creating of a third union, as opposed to the two parties, which consisted of politicians with differing slightly conservative and non-conservative views. However, the attempt failed PCOS - in 1996 it was renamed the Social Democratic Party (SDP), followed by the Democratic Party was created, which included a considerable force of the Social Democratic Party.
In the elections of 1996, the Liberal Democratic Party regains the right to form the government, but without total superiority, which was at the party until 1993. SPD fails in this election. NDP takes second place behind the LDP, but, having existed for about a year as a result of differences apart. Most members of the NDP are joining the ranks of the Democratic Party, which became the main opposition party. Some part of the NDP re-creates the 1998 Ko: Mate:. The rest of the politicians of the NDP form the Liberal Party.
The end of the nineties is characterized by a slight predominance of the LDP in parliament, but the party is forced to seek a coalition with other parties. After the 1998 elections, the LDP alone forms the government, but gradually comes to its reorganization, assuming there Liberals and Co.: Mate:.
Of all the major realignment of political forces in Japan are not affected, perhaps, only the JCP. In general for Japan in recent years is significant that the political parties disbanded, fall apart and with the same speed appear like mushrooms after the rain. And if you are all familiar with the stability and the "longevity" of the British parties, or the Democrats and Republicans, then Japan is not go to any comparison. However, there is a tendency of finding the LDP in power, though not with the benefit of what she had until 1993.
August 30, 2009 in Japan, general elections were held in the House of Representatives, which is the lower house of the Japanese parliament and plays a key role in the formation of the government and the enactment of laws. 308 out of 480 seats received the opposition Democratic Party of Japan, which will allow it to form a new government. The Liberal Democratic Party, which until now was the ruling, received a total of 119 seats. To date, the alignment of political forces is this: The Democratic Party - 308 seats, the Liberal Democratic Party - 119, Komeito - 21, JCP - 9, the Socialist Party - 7, People's Party - 3, independents and members of other parties - 13 seats.